Colonial Literature

Civil War & Realism


European Romanticim


Harlem Renaissance

American Romanticism

19th century Naturalism

Beat Generation/Whitman

New England Renaissance

American Realism & Regionalism



Anxiety of Influence



Regionalism and Realism

Virgil's Georgics: Primus ego in patriam mecum . . . deducam Musas.

(I shall be the first, if I live, to bring the Muse into my Country.)

Authors of Regionalism: Mark Twain, Edwin Arlington Robinson, Bret Harte, Sarah Orne Jewett, Kate Chopin and Stephen Crane.


Naturalism: this is a more specific literary definition of realism. Have you heard of it before? Can you first make a connection to the scientific connotation of the word?